A Comprehensive Guide to Fuels and Combustion by Sharma and Mohan
Fuels And Combustion By Sharma And Chander Mohan Pdf 98l
If you are looking for a comprehensive and authoritative book on fuels and combustion, you might want to check out Fuels And Combustion by S.P. Sharma and Chander Mohan. This book covers the theory and practice of fuels and combustion in a clear and concise manner. It is suitable for students, teachers and professionals who want to learn more about this important subject.
Fuels And Combustion By Sharma And Chander Mohan Pdf 98l
In this article, we will give you an overview of what this book covers, why it is important, and how you can get a copy of it. We will also answer some frequently asked questions about fuels and combustion. Let's get started!
What is Fuels and Combustion?
Fuels are substances that can be burned to produce heat or work. They can be classified into three main types: solid, liquid and gaseous. Some examples of fuels are coal, wood, petroleum, natural gas, hydrogen and biogas.
Combustion is the process of burning a fuel with oxygen to release energy. It can be divided into two stages: ignition and propagation. Ignition is the initiation of combustion by a spark or a flame. Propagation is the spread of combustion through the fuel-air mixture.
Fuels and combustion are closely related topics that involve chemistry, physics and engineering. They have many applications in various fields such as power generation, transportation, heating, cooking and metallurgy.
Why is Fuels and Combustion Important?
Fuels and combustion are important for several reasons:
They provide a major source of energy for human civilization. Without fuels and combustion, we would not have electricity, cars, planes or rockets.
They enable us to convert natural resources into useful products. For example, petroleum can be refined into gasoline, diesel, kerosene and other fuels.
They help us to understand the nature of matter and energy. By studying fuels and combustion, we can learn about chemical reactions, thermodynamics, kinetics and equilibrium.
However, fuels and combustion also pose some challenges such as pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, resource depletion and climate change. Therefore, it is essential to use fuels wisely and efficiently, as well as to develop alternative sources of energy.
What are the Types of Fuels and Combustion?
As mentioned earlier, fuels can be classified into three main types: solid, liquid and gaseous. Each type has its own characteristics, advantages and disadvantages. Let's take a look at each type in more detail.
Solid fuels are fuels that are in solid form at room temperature. They include coal, wood, charcoal, biomass and others. Solid fuels have a high heating value, meaning they can produce a lot of heat per unit mass. They are also easy to store and transport.
However, solid fuels also have some drawbacks. They are difficult to ignite and control, meaning they require a high temperature and a good air supply to burn properly. They also produce a lot of ash and smoke, which can cause environmental problems.
Liquid fuels are fuels that are in liquid form at room temperature. They include petroleum, alcohol, biodiesel and others. Liquid fuels have a moderate heating value, meaning they can produce a moderate amount of heat per unit mass. They are also easy to ignite and control, meaning they can be burned in a variety of devices such as engines, furnaces and stoves.
However, liquid fuels also have some drawbacks. They are volatile and flammable, meaning they can evaporate and catch fire easily. They also require special storage and handling facilities, which can be costly and risky.
Gaseous fuels are fuels that are in gaseous form at room temperature. They include natural gas, hydrogen, biogas and others. Gaseous fuels have a low heating value, meaning they can produce a low amount of heat per unit mass. They are also difficult to store and transport, meaning they require high pressure or low temperature to be compressed or liquefied.
However, gaseous fuels also have some advantages. They are clean and efficient, meaning they produce little or no ash and smoke, and they burn completely with a high flame temperature. They are also easy to mix with air, meaning they can be burned in a wide range of devices such as turbines, boilers and fuel cells.
How is Fuels and Combustion Analyzed?
To understand the properties and performance of fuels and combustion, we need to analyze them using various methods. Two of the most common methods are proximate analysis and ultimate analysis.
Proximate analysis is a method of determining the composition of a fuel by measuring its moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon and ash content. These parameters indicate the quality and quantity of the fuel available for combustion.
Moisture is the amount of water present in the fuel. It reduces the heating value and efficiency of the fuel.
Volatile matter is the amount of gas or vapor that is released from the fuel when it is heated. It indicates the ease of ignition and flame stability of the fuel.
Fixed carbon is the amount of solid residue that remains after the volatile matter is driven off. It indicates the amount of heat that can be generated by the fuel.
Ash is the amount of inorganic material that remains after the fuel is completely burned. It indicates the impurities and contaminants in the fuel.
Ultimate analysis is a method of determining the elemental composition of a fuel by measuring its carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur content. These elements indicate the chemical structure and reactivity of the fuel.
Carbon is the main element that provides energy in combustion. It forms carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide when it reacts with oxygen.
Hydrogen is another element that provides energy in combustion. It forms water when it reacts with oxygen.
Oxygen is an element that is present in some fuels such as biomass and alcohol. It reduces the amount of oxygen required for combustion.
Nitrogen is an element that is present in some fuels such as coal and natural gas. It forms nitrogen oxides when it reacts with oxygen.
Sulphur is an element that is present in some fuels such as coal and petroleum. It forms sulphur dioxide and sulphur trioxide when it reacts with oxygen.
What are the Principles of Fuels and Combustion?
To understand the behavior and outcome of fuels and combustion, we need to apply some principles from chemistry and physics. Two of the most important principles are stoichiometry and thermodynamics.
Stoichiometry is the principle of balancing chemical equations by using coefficients to indicate the number of moles or molecules of each reactant and product involved. It helps us to calculate the amount of fuel and air required for complete combustion, as well as the amount of products and heat generated.
For example, the stoichiometric equation for the combustion of methane (CH4) with oxygen (O2) is:
CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O
This means that one mole of methane reacts with two moles of oxygen to produce one mole of carbon dioxide and two moles of water. The coefficients also indicate the air-fuel ratio, which is the ratio of the mass of air to the mass of fuel. For methane, the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio is 17.2 kg/kg.
Thermodynamics is the principle of studying the energy and entropy changes in a system undergoing a process. It helps us to evaluate the efficiency and feasibility of a combustion process, as well as the work and heat transfer involved.
For example, the first law of thermodynamics states that the energy of a system is conserved, meaning that the energy input equals the energy output. In a combustion process, the energy input is the chemical energy of the fuel and the energy output is the thermal energy of the products and the work done by the system. The difference between them is called the heat loss.
The second law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of a system tends to increase, meaning that the disorder or randomness of a system increases. In a combustion process, the entropy change is positive, meaning that the products are more disordered than the reactants. The Gibbs free energy is a function that combines both energy and entropy changes. It indicates whether a process is spontaneous or not. A negative Gibbs free energy means that a process is spontaneous and favorable.
What are the Challenges of Fuels and Combustion?
Fuels and combustion are not without problems. They face some challenges such as pollution and efficiency that need to be addressed and overcome.
Pollution is one of the major drawbacks of fuels and combustion. It refers to the harmful substances that are released into the environment as a result of combustion. Some examples of pollutants are carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, particulate matter and greenhouse gases.
Pollutants can have negative impacts on human health, wildlife, plants and climate. They can cause respiratory diseases, acid rain, smog, global warming and ozone depletion. Therefore, it is important to control and reduce the emissions of pollutants by using various methods such as catalytic converters, scrubbers, filters and carbon capture and storage.
Efficiency is another challenge of fuels and combustion. It refers to the ratio of useful output to input in a process. It measures how well a process converts fuel into work or heat. The higher the efficiency, the less fuel is wasted and the more output is obtained.
However, no process can achieve 100% efficiency due to various factors such as heat losses, friction losses, incomplete combustion and irreversibility. Therefore, it is important to improve and optimize the efficiency of fuels and combustion by using various methods such as preheating, insulation, supercharging and cogeneration.
In conclusion, fuels and combustion are vital topics that have many applications and implications in our society. They provide us with energy and products that we use every day. However, they also pose some challenges such as pollution and efficiency that we need to overcome.
If you want to learn more about fuels and combustion in depth, you should read Fuels And Combustion by S.P. Sharma and Chander Mohan. This book covers all aspects of fuels and combustion in a clear and concise manner. It is suitable for students, teachers and professionals who want to master this subject.
You can get a copy of this book in PDF format from this link: https://www.academia.edu/39826567/Fuels_and_Combustion_by_S_P_Sharma_and_Chander_Mohan. It is free to download and share. However, you should respect the authors' rights and cite the source properly if you use it for academic or research purposes.
We hope you enjoyed this article and learned something new. If you have any questions or feedback, please feel free to leave a comment below. Thank you for reading!
Frequently Asked Questions
What is the difference between fuels and combustibles?
A fuel is a substance that can be burned to produce heat or work. A combustible is a substance that can catch fire and burn. Not all combustibles are fuels, but all fuels are combustibles.
What is the difference between combustion and oxidation?
Combustion is a type of oxidation that involves a rapid reaction of a fuel with oxygen to release energy. Oxidation is a more general term that involves the loss of electrons or the gain of oxygen by a substance.
What is the difference between complete and incomplete combustion?
Complete combustion is a type of combustion that occurs when a fuel burns with enough oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water as the only products. Incomplete combustion is a type of combustion that occurs when a fuel burns with insufficient oxygen to produce carbon monoxide, carbon, water and other products.
What is the difference between adiabatic and isothermal combustion?
Adiabatic combustion is a type of combustion that occurs without any heat transfer to or from the surroundings. Isothermal combustion is a type of combustion that occurs at a constant temperature.
What is the difference between premixed and diffusion combustion?
Premixed combustion is a type of combustion that occurs when a fuel and air are mixed before entering the combustion chamber. Diffusion combustion is a type of combustion that occurs when a fuel and air are not mixed before entering the combustion chamber.